The celebrations of the School of Humanities Lustrum at Tilburg University were not merely entertaining. They painted a picture of achievements but also challenges that the discipline currently faces. What does the future hold for the humanities?
Impossible made possible
Imagine a set of millions of books written in the course of centuries. Reading only English language books from the year 2000 alone without interruptions for food or sleep would take you 80 years. But a computer can read and analyze them much quicker. Using computers and the internet as tools in humanities research opens up previously unthinkable opportunities.
So-called e-Humanities, also known as digital humanities, combines methods from traditional disciplines, such as history, philosophy, linguistics, literature, art, archaeology, music, and cultural studies with tools provided by computer science. What does this digitalization mean for the future of the humanities in general?
This question was tackled during one of the lectures on e-Humanities organized by the lustrum committee. For Rens Bod, professor of Computational and Digital Humanities at the University of Amsterdam, the development of e-Humanities gives a chance for scholars to increase their cooperation with private companies.
According to him, such collaboration shows that the humanities studies do not merely train critical minds, but also contribute greatly to the economy and industry. “E-Humanities is the next big step in Information Technology. Companies are increasingly interested in using data from the humanities for their investments, for example, mobile applications or digital maps,” says Bod.
Thus, the process of digitalization brings the humanities outside of the confines of the university and connects the scholars with private companies. Also, thanks to digital data visualization programs, research results can be made publically available in a more comprehensible, almost entertaining form.
But are digital methods just a way to sell the results of traditional research? According to Jan Scholtes, professor of Text Mining at Maastricht University, digital methods allow for much more than previously thought, for they help to discover previously unknown, or hidden, phenomena in culture. For example, they have the potential to show new patterns in language use, visualize sentiments and opinions in society, structure the unstructured data and map complicated social relationships.
Therefore, e-Humanities discipline is not only concerned with studying the internet but the society and culture as a whole. As prof. Richard Rogers, a Web epistemologist form the University of Amsterdam writes in his book The End of the Virtual. Digital Methods, “the Internet is employed as a site of research for far more than just online culture.
The issue no longer is how much of society and culture is online, but rather how to diagnose cultural change and societal conditions using the Internet. The conceptual point of departure for the research program is the recognition that the Internet is not only an object of study but also a source.” However, viewing the internet as a source of data about society is not without problems.
A Drop in the Ocean
Rens Bod speaking during the e-Humanities lecture seemed to be overly enthusiastic about e-Humanities as an emerging discipline: “Humanists can be proud about their impact and valorization, but they could sell it better. They should make as many digital researches as possible, and send press releases one after the other. We should promote e-Humanities more!”
The internet is not, however, the alpha and omega. Why is that? Because humanities scholars rely heavily on records, whether they are newspapers, photographs, letters, diaries, books, articles and other records of human experiences. If they start using digital methods for their research, they encounter a problem of the availability of cultural objects online.
The majority of books, articles in printed journals and newspapers published throughout centuries can be found only in library catalogs and archives. Only about 15 million books have been digitized, which makes for 12% of all books ever published.
It is true that there are many digitalizing projects, but they have a hard time translating materials being printed currently and those printed in the past. Unless we believe that in the nearest future the publishing industry will go entirely online, the digitalization process might never catch up.
We also have to keep in mind that books that have been translated from print to the online sphere are, to a big extent, only the canonical works representing just a tiny part of the culture that was considered significant enough by our cultural institutions.
According to Richard Rogers, if the researchers want to understand the changes and developments in society, they cannot just analyze “cultural sentences spoken by a few ‘great man’ but the patterns in all cultural sentences spoken by everybody else.”
With the Speed of the Internet
The speed in which the news websites, blogs, Twitter and Facebook are updated and refreshed is definitely an advantage for users, but not for researchers. Humanities scholars are facing the problem of how to capture unstable and ever-changing online data so that it becomes permanent and possible to analyze.
It is a challenge to not only track changes online but to record them. Much of the content online, once it disappears or changes leaves no trace and is not archived anywhere. Researchers looking into online communities or social media are also faced with changing rules, privacy setting, and interfaces.
Relevant research can be made irrelevant only by an online platform changing its settings or design. It is also difficult to get online data from the past. For example, if you’re late with gathering public opinion data for your research on the American elections, you might never get tweets older than one month.
Is Virtual Reality Real?
While online data is undoubtedly useful for research of online communities and behavior of internet users, does it also reflect changes in society off-line? Can research done entirely online make claims about social changes in the real-life dimension, not only in the virtual one?
Some scholars are still skeptic about online data, claiming that the internet is often a source of ungrounded claims, gossips, and amateur research. They distrust any user-generated content such as Wikipedia and any data that is provided and can be altered, by ordinary users. Humanities scholars have to now face the question of whether the Web can be a source of solid, researchable data and if it adequately reflects dynamics in society.
Perspectives on the Future
So what does the future hold for the humanities at Tilburg University and for the discipline in general? The movement towards more modern, digitized and computerized research is a fact, but what will happen to more traditional aspects of the humanities?
Judging from the nature of the lustrum events, the Schools of Humanities at the university struggles with the same question. The committee clearly tried to combine the traditional with the modern. The Asko|Schönberg music concert was a wonderful performance of classical instruments, yet combined with the more contemporary, minimal, and innovative music composed by Steve Reich. While this combination seemed to work just fine during the concert, it was not that successful during the masque ball. What was expected as an elegant gala with long dresses and tuxedos turned out to be a party with party music, wine served in plastic cups and beer on the floor? What should then be the balance between tradition and innovation?